A Comparative Analysis of Simin Behbahani and Souad al-Sabah's Poetry from the Perspective of Feminist Criticism

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of the Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of the Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

10.34785/J014.2022.189

Abstract

In the early twentieth century, with the rise of women's issues in the continuation of the world's feminist movements, women's literature was formed in Iran and the Arab world. Women's issues in Persian and Arabic poetry first appeared in the poems of Forough Farrokhzad and Ghada al-Samman. Later, Simin Behbahani in Persian literature and Souad al-Sabah in Arabic became famous poets in the framework of liberal feminism and gave a new interpretation of women's desires and problems. Challenging gender discrimination, they have raised the issue of human equality in a reformist and principled manner. This article has analyzed and compared the components of feminist criticism in the poetry of two poets with a descriptive-analytical method and a comparative approach. Discrimination due to misconceptions about love, marriage, and the emphasis on awareness, freedom, individual and identity independence, and changing attitudes are among the most important themes of two poets. Because of their social commonalities, beliefs, lived experiences, traditions, and similar circumstances, they have described the status and position of women with highly realistic conceptions of common themes. The critical point of view and the style of expression of both poets are non-iconoclastic and in accordance with liberal feminism.

Keywords


  1. Abbott, Pamela and Claire Wallace. An introduction to sociology: feminist perspectives. Trans. Manizheh Najm Iraqi. Tehran: Nay Publication, 2001.

    Abu Mahboub, Ahmad. Green cradle of maple, Simin Behbahani's Life and Poetry. 3rd. Tehran: Thaleth Publication, 2008.

    Al-Maqarri al-Tlemsani, Mohammad. Nafh al-Tib Min Ghosn al-Andalus al-Ratib. Ed. Yousef Mohammad al-Baqa'i. Vol. 1st. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1998.

    Al-Sabah, Souad. A Woman without Coasts. 4th. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 2005 D.

    —. And Roses Know Anger. 1st. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 2005 C.

    —. In the Beginning There Was Female. 7th. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 2000.

    —. Odes of Love. 5th. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 2005 B.

    —. Pieces of a Woman. 9th. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 1997.

    —. Take Me to the Sun's Boundaries. 3rd. Kuwait: Souad al-Sabah Publications, 2005 A.

    Armstrong, Isobel ed. New Feminist Discourse. London: Routledge, 1992.

    Behbahani, Simin. "The Effect of Society and Social Situations on Poetry." The First Congress of Poetry in Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Culture & Art Publications, 1970, 74-83.

    —. The First Volume of Collected Poems. 7th. Tehran: Negah Publication Institute, 2015.

    Braidotti, Rosi. Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

    De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Trans. Qasem San'avi. 7th. Vol. 2nd. Tehran: Toos Publication, 2006.

    Dehbashi, Ali. A Woman with a Skirtful of Poetry; in Celebration of Simin Behbahani. Tehran: Negah Publication, 2004.

    Dominguez, Cesar, Haun Saussy and Dario Villanueva. Introducing Comparative Literature, New Trends and Applications. London: Routledge, 2015.

    Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization. Trans. Ahmad Aram, Askari Pashaei and Amir Hussein Aryanpour. 3rd. Tehran: Publication of Education of Islamic Revolution, 1991.

    Gamble, Sarah. Feminism and Postfeminism. London: Routledge, 2006.

    Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for Everybody, Passionate Politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000.

    Hussein al-Afif, Fatemah. The Language of Modern Arabic Feminist Poetry; Case Study: Nazek al-Malaeka, Souad al-Sabah and Nabila al-Khatib. Jordan: Alam al-Kotob al-Hadith Publications, 2011.

    Jost, Francois. "A Historical Perspective of Comparative Literature (Translated by Alireza Anoushirvani)." Quarterly of Comparative Literature Studies, Vol. 3, 2005, 37-60.

    Korsmeyer, Carolyn. Gender and Aesthetics: An Introduction [Feminism wa Zibaei Shenasi]. Trans. Afshang Maqsoudi. Tehran: Gol Azin Publications, 2007.

    Malti-Douglas, Fadwa. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. New York: Thomson Gale, n.d.

    Nada, Taha. Comparative Literature (Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Nahza al-Arabeya, 1991.

    Rahbi, Mayya. Feminism, Conceptions and Issues. Demascus: Dar al-Rahba Publication, 2014.

    Robbins, Ruth. Literary Feminisms. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

    Ruwaily, Meghan and Sa'd Bazeghi. Literary Critic Guide. Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-Arabi, 2000.

    1. Saleh, Azher and Wafa S. Mahmood. "The Theory of Feminism: Definition and Development." Adab Al-Rafidayn, No. 56, 2008, 55-92.

    Saadawi, Nawal. Studies on Woman and Man in the Arab Society. 2nd. Beirut: Arabic Institute for Studies and Publication, 1990.

    Tong, Rosemarie. Feminist Thought (A More Comprehensive Introduction). Colorado: Westview Press, 2009.

    Zarwandi, Nafiseh. "A Critique on Current Feminism Perspectives." Quarterly Journal of Cultural-Defensive Studies of Women, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2007, 77-106.

    Zeidan, Joseph. Femenism Literary Resources in Modern Arab World. 1st. Vol. Beirut: Dar al-Elm, 1999.

  • Receive Date: 15 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 17 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 April 2022