Paper Submission Guide
Updated: June 15, 2021
Original manuscripts should be prepared in Microsoft Word and submitted online in order to be read by CLS Editorial Board. Authors should consider that the editors have the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions. Hereafter, authors must be waiting for approval of their work before publication.
Citations in the Text:
CLS follows MLA Style. Each work cited in the text must appear in the Works Cited list, and vise-versa. However, two kinds of material are cited only in the text: references to classical works such as The Bible and The Qur’an, whose sections are standardized across editions, and references to personal communication.
1. General Requirements
CLS only accept manuscripts written in English. Please write your text in proper English; author must consider single American or British usage.
In writing numbers, authors must use a period instead of a comma. Moreover, it is necessary to divide numbers containing more than five digits into groups of three (i.e., 10 000.471 85, but 1000.4718).
1.3 Length of Paper
Papers between minimum of 5000 words and maximum of 6000 words including abstract and references are preferred.
2. Title Page
Author should upload the title page as a supplementary file for the editor to review in order to prevent the identification; since this journal approves articles with high system quells any disturbance.
Main title should not be more than 12 words (Font: Times New Roman; Size: 12 pt.). Linearly, abbreviations and/or purposeless word are not accepted in the title. The subtitle should be italicized and centered directly below the main title.
2.2 Authors’ Names and Affiliations
At the aims of author’s name it must be followed by that method of; the first name, initial(s) middle, and last name. To assist researchers as well as librarians, use the same form for publication. All titles and degrees must be omitted too (e.g., Dr., Professor, PhD, PsyD, EdD).
The authors’ affiliation identifies the location of the author(s) at the time the research was conducted, which is usually an institution. Include a dual affiliation only if two institutions contributed substantial support to the study. Include no more than two affiliations per author. If an author has no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of his/her residence. The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions, centered between the side margins. For names with suffixes (e,g., Jr. and II), separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma. Only provide a complete mailing address of the corresponding author for correspondence.
3. Preparation of Text
Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:
Title; abstract; keywords (indexing terms, normally three-to-six items); introduction; literature review; theoretical framework; methods and/or techniques; material studied; results; discussion and findings; conclusion; acknowledgements; references.
3.1 General Rules for Text
Please use the following rules for the entire text, including abstract, keywords, headings, and references.
Font: Times New Roman; Size: 12 pt.
Paragraph Spacing: Above paragraph — 0 pt.; below paragraph — 4 pt.
Line Spacing: fixed, 1.5 pt.
Heading 1: Times New Roman; 12 pt.; Bold; for example, 1. First-level Heading
Heading 2: Times New Roman; 12 pt.; Italic; for example, 1.1 Second-level Heading
Heading 3: Times New Roman; 12 pt.; for example, 1.1.1 Third-level Heading
A concise and factual abstract is required. It should be between 150 and 250 words. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but, if essential, they must be cited in full in the abstract without relying on the reference list.
Listing keywords helps Editorial Board to find works in databases. Then, provide 5 to 6 keywords while avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts. About abbreviations only firmly established ones in the field may be eligible.
4.1. In-text Citations: Author-Page Style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author:
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).
Citing two books by the same author:
Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" (Write to Learn 6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" (A Writer Teaches Writing 3).
An Article in a Scholarly Journal
A scholarly journal can be thought of as a container, as are collections of short stories or poems, a television series, or even a website. A container can be thought of as anything that contains other pieces of work. In this case, cite the author and title of article as you normally would. The title of the article should be between two quotation marks. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number (Vol.) and issue number (No.), separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.
Ex: Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.
An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal
When an article appears in a special issue of a journal, cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space, in italics. Add the descriptor “special issue of” and include the name of the journal, also in italics, followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation.
Web entries should follow a similar format, and should include a DOI (if available), otherwise include a URL or permalink.
Ex: Case, Sue-Ellen. “Eve's Apple, or Women's Narrative Bytes.” Technocriticism and Hypernarrative, special issue of Modern Fiction Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1997, pp. 631-50. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/mfs.1997.0056.
Article in a Magazine
Cite by listing the article's author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month. The basic format is as follows:
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.
Ex: Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.
Article in a Newspaper
Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in most newspapers. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition after the newspaper title.
Ex: Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1.
Article and Book Review
To cite a review, include the title of the review (if available), then the phrase, “Review of” and provide the title of the work (in italics for books, plays, and films; in quotation marks for articles, poems, and short stories). Finally, provide performance and/or publication information.
Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Review of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page.
Ex: Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living." Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.
Cite the article’s title first, then finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical.
Ex: "Business: Global Warming's Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland." The Economist, 26 May 2007, p. 82.
Basic Book Format
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
Book with More Than One Author
When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. Start by listing the first name that appears on the book in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in normal order (first name last name format). If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).
Two or More Books by the Same Author
List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.
Ex: Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin's, 1997.
---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
A Translated Book
If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Ex: Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.
Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition.
Ex: Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. New York: Routledge, 1999.
A Work Prepared by an Editor
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by."
Ex: Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre, edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.
A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection
Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:
Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.
Ex: Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.
Poem or Short Story Examples:
Cite as below:
Ex: Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.
If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference:
Ex: Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems, Dover, 1991, pp. 12-19.
An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the author of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range.
Ex: Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture, by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.
Dissertations and Master's Theses
Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Unlike previous editions, MLA 8 specifies no difference in style for published/unpublished works.
Ex: Bishop, Karen Lynn. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. 2002. Purdue University, PhD dissertation.
Please avoid using footnotes. Change footnotes to endnotes. Insert (Note 1, Note 2) in the running text and explain the note in an end notes section after the references page.
The appendix comes after the references and the notes. In the text, refer to appendices by their labels: e.g., produced the same results for both studies.